Sunday, June 28, 2020

Part Two Essay Alienation of Raskolnikov - Literature Essay Samples

Crime and Punishment Part Two: Essay In Part Two of Crime and Punishment, the reader sees a continuation of many themes earlier presented, but in a new and more extreme environment. As Raskolnikov tries to remain clear of accusation, he continues to alienate himself from those who would love and help him, and hides his emotion from them, like the evidence he so closely monitors. Rodya is protected by sheer fortune throughout the text of part two, and it is clear that through beginning, middle, and end his secluded lifestyle, even in the weakness of his sanity, protects the faÃÆ'Â §ade of his innocence and spares him judgment; at least for a time. As one enters the pages of Part Two it is clear that Rodyas mental and physical state have deteriorated as the guilt of his crime weighs on him, eating at his sanity and reason. Indeed, while he is obsessed with hiding such guilt-clinging to the bloody rags even in sleep, abandoning the loot from Alyonas house, questioning everyone of wha t they know when the murder comes up in conversation- he is also tormented by it, wanting desperately to let his secret out. But such despair and, if one may put it so, such cynicism of perdition that suddenly possessed him that he waved his hand and went on. Only get it over with! Coming to a turn on yesterdays street, he peered down it with tormenting anxiety, at that house and immediately looked away. If they ask, maybe Ill tell them, he thought, approaching the stationHe did not ask anyone about anything. Ill walk in, fall on my knees, and tell them everything he thought, going up to the fourth floor.p.94 Rodyas conscience is pleading with him throughout the novel to be moral and relinquish this terrible crime that at least he might have mental peace. However, Raskolnikovs dualism also struggles against him in that his reason and will cannot let go of his secret, but rather needs to feel that he got away with it. This emotion versus reason creates a very nervous and confused Rod ya throughout the text and he often panics, obsessed with the details of the murder, and other time gives up, hoping someone will catch him and his torment will end. In hiding these precious pieces of evidence, Rodya must remain as alienated as possible, for he cannot control his outbursts (as is demonstrated many times during his fits in front of Zossimiov, Natasya and Razumikhin) thus he must control his company. Even in the heat of his sickness, while delirium threatens and he cannot care for himself, he tries to force away even those few people who would help him. Razumikhin does not give up, though, and he, Natasya and Zossimov are determined to aid Raskolnikov against his will, even dressing him as he fights near tears for them to leave. Rodyas paranoia that he may be found out keeps his mind racing about the details and evidence against him that, should anyone stay near him or get past his rational to the emotional would surely imply his guilt. His reason and will fear his u ncontrolled emotional side, wishing not to repeat scenes like that in the police station where he renders himself emotionally vulnerable to strangers. Toward the middle of the section, it seems that Razumikhin and Zossimov are quite close to figuring out Rodyas whole murder as Razumikhin accurately portrays Rodyas clumsy, sloppy murder scene. But hes not, thats precisely the point! Razumikhin interrupted. Thats what throws you all off. I say he was not cunning, not experienced, and this was certainly his first attempt! Assume calculation and a cunning rogue, and it all looks improbable. Assume an inexperienced man, and it looks as if he escaped disaster only by chance, and chance can do all sorts of things! And how does he go about his business? He takes things worth ten or twenty roubles, stuffs his pockets with them, rummages in a womans trunk, among her rags-while in the chest, in the top drawer, in a strongbox, they found fifteen hundred roubles in hard cash, and notes besides ! He couldnt even rob, all he could do was kill! A first attempt I tell you, a first attempt; he lost his head! And he got away not by calculation, but by chance!p.150 For all of Rodyas worrying and hiding, the truth, it seems, cannot help but come out. Raskolnikovs vision of his perfect crime is marred by its inherent flaws and apparently thin disguise. In his own mind, he is an artist of will and reason, but in reality, he is a weak and clumsy, albeit lucky, murderer. He tries to deflect attention away from himself in clever ways, almost insane ways as in his near confession to Zamyotov. And what if it was I who killed the old woman and Lizaveta? he said suddenly-and came to his senses. Zamyotov looked widely at him and went white as a sheet. His face twisted into a smile. But can it be? he said, barely audible. Raskolnikov looked at him spitefully. Admit that you believed it! Right? Am I right? Not at all! Now more than ever I dont! Zamyotov said hastily.p.165 This outburst of Rodyas own emotional torment very nearly seals his fate with his own confession. He regains his reason just after suggesting the truth, that he indeed had committed the murder, but luckily regains his balance by turning the thing into a joke, which more strongly convinces Zamyotov that now more than ever he knew Raskolnikov had nothing to do with the murder. Rodyas luck has kept him hidden from speculation thus far, but as he sees, chance can do all sorts of things so he takes matters into his own hands. Towards the end of Part Two, Raskolnikov sees that his end is almost definitely to be found out, and his inner torment cannot take this stress, so he decides to commit suicide-the ultimate act of alienation- to cast an eternal shadow over the murders. He is only spared this fate by fate, as he happens upon another person in the river for the same reason. He is disgusted by it all and changes his mind about the ordeal, continuing on only to be distracted by the family of Marmelodov in panic for his safety. Throughout Part Two, Raskolnikov tries to hide the evidence of his murder by alienating himself from everyone until he can quite properly figure out what he is to go with himself. The evidence in the novel suggests that Rodyas protection thus far has been only from sheer chance, and also that he is soon to be found out. Raskolnikovs plans to take hold of his destiny often fail or create more suspicion around him, and indeed his is weak in both mind and body for most of the section. The reader sees that not only is Rodya a complex duality, but also a scared and not-so-super human being. Dostoevsky deeply portrays this mans struggle, and the Crime for with he must pay.

Wednesday, June 3, 2020

Stereotypes and Stereotyping in Susan Glaspells Trifles - Free Essay Example

Trifles play by Susan Glaspell is a greatly based on stereotypes. The peculiar one is the inferiority of women as opposed to men. The play also uncovers gender differences in society. The author fundamentally examines the repression of women in early days particularly in the 1900s.The female gender is highly looked down by the male gender. Women are portrayed as housewives whose work is to cook and to bear children. However, women in the Glaspells play completely rebel against male domination. They have actually proved that it is wrong. Men in the story are sent to discover more about the murder, while women follow to correct some things for Mrs. Wright; no more than their duty rather than defend Mrs. Wrights poor housekeeping (Glaspell 1050). She was accused for murdering her husband. In the entire play men mock and rebuke women (Glaspell, 79).They treat them with contempt. Patriarchy is a term that describes a social structure in which men have control and domination over their female counterparts. The concept of patriarchy has a central to many feminist debates. The society that we live today is characterized with patriarchs. The current nature of society is informed by past discrimination of women and unequal distribution of power between men and females. Women in patriarchal societies are underrepresented in the social, economic and political spheres. Gender-based violence is common in this kind of communities. Theories of feminism have expanded the description of a patriarchy society to encompass an institutionalized bias against women. Socialization is the driver of gender bias (Glaspell, 69). The author elucidates the ingrained social norms for both men and women. For example, Snow White who plays the role of a woman in the play is depicted as clueless, childlike, emotional dependent on people. A real woman according to the tale is the one who is submissive to a man and also who respects the authority of me; Well, women are used to worrying over trifles (Glaspell 1049). The tale is consequential in advancing the gender agenda. It critiques positively the patriarchy system, which they accuse of demean ing the status of women in the society Changes in Womens Role Participation, Even with all the hard work a woman would do, it was not uncommon for the hard work to be taken for granted. Glaspell shows this when the County Attorney says, Dirty towels! Not much of a housekeeper, would you say ladies? (Glaspell 1049). From these essays, it is clear that the patriarchy system is subjective in nature and it judges women harshly i.e. women are expected to be beautiful and to have a pretty face, so as to please their husbands (Glaspell, 47). Womens face is more regarded than their intellect. Consistent with the patriarchy ideas, the essays introduce the concept of a Good and bad a girl. Good girls, unlike bad ones, are expected to submit themselves to the societal roles of the day without any deviation. Women are supposed to be motherly for them to be considered as good wives. The story argues that a woman should be equal to the male counterparts and should be independent. They claim that Women should not be subordinate to men, to them, these acts to deny women their right to participate in the social and economic development (Glaspell, 102). It believes that women can play a major in the social, economic and political development of a nation.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Affects Of Social Class Inequality On Higher Education

The Affects of Social Class Inequality on Higher Education Assignment 1: Literature Review 48-290 Researching Social Life Fall 2015 Professor: Mark Munsterhjelm Date submitted: 8 October 2015 Ashley Doung 104268427 1. Research Question The literature review addresses the following question: Does social class inequality affect higher education? The theoretical paradigm that is considered for this question is the Critical paradigm, in which is mainly qualitative and inductive. Critical paradigm is appropriate to answer this particular question because it involves inductive reasoning that begins from a specific observation to a more generalize. The paradigm also looks at how people are at a disadvantage when it comes to obtaining a higher education and incorporates observations and interviews that cultivate a conversation and the interviewee’s reflection. By interviewing people in different social classes and asking how it affects their education, researchers are able to identify the affects social class has on higher education. 2.1 Source Bibliographic Information Author(s): Vyronides, Marios; Lamprianou, Iasonas Year of publication: 2013 Article Title: Education and Social Stratification Across Europe Journal title: The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy Volume and issue: Vol. 33 Issue 1/2 Page numbers: 77-97 Database: ProQuest Political Science Summary: The article Education and Social Stratification across Europe, focus on theShow MoreRelatedThe History of Inequality in the United States1111 Words   |  4 PagesThe level of inequality has been drastically reduced over, but it still exists today even though it may not be as obvious. One crucial turning point in the history of inequality is the time of slavery. This is when inequality could not have been higher because non-white people, especially African-Americans, had virtually no rights at all. A turning point on the opposite side of this spectrum would be the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950’s and ‘60s. This is the time when segregation was outlawedRead MoreSocial Class And Its Relevance1702 Words   |  7 Pagesbeen an ongoing debate about social class and its relevance in contemporary society. Marx’s social class theory was relating to man and his access to the means of production. He stated there are two classes the bourgeoisie, those who own the means of the production and the proletariat who only possess their labour power to sell ( Ollman, 1976). Pakulski and Waters argued that social is dead, due to changes in economic and social structures along with adaptions in social identity and belonging (1996)Read MoreSocioeconomic Inequality Of The United States882 Words   |  4 Pageshealth care, education, social status, and wages than the upper class. I believe socioeconomic status serves a large role in whether an individual is likely to experience poor health. Policies that increase unemployment insurance or allocate for equal distribution of wealth and opportunity are viable solutions to socioeconomic inequality (Babones 2010:141). The social conflict theory best explains the socioeconomic inequality in the United States and helps sociologists interpret how inequality causes increasedRead MoreImpact Of The Income Inequality On The American Dream1742 Words   |  7 PagesImpact of the Income Inequality on the American Dream The book called They Say I say with Readings contains multiple articles. However, chapter nineteen focuses on the American Dream. Chapter nineteen, â€Å"What’s Up with the American Dream?† indicates how the article will be focusing on the American Dream. The American Dream changes over the course of time as the income inequality widens between the higher and lower class. Few events occurred that affected the income, which led to a growing gap betweenRead MoreThe Conflict And Functionalist Theories Behind Social Class1496 Words   |  6 PagesInequality materializes the upper class, vulgarizes our middle class, brutalizes our lower class. In Australia, social class is a widely recognised concept, however some individuals, particularly the wealthy people, will argue that social class in non existent, that with hard work anyone can achieve, what they set their mind onto. The social stratification system, is based on objective criteria, including wealth, power, and prest ige. The Australian notion of equal opportunity, insinuates that socialRead MoreInequalities Of Health In Britain Today Essay1593 Words   |  7 PagesInequalities Of Health In Britain Today In Britain today, inequalities of health are common among many different groups of people. Recent comparisons have shown that Britain is in the middle of comparable Western countries in relation to inequalities of health. Class has a huge influence on health. There is a large gap in how healthy those in lower class groups are compared to those in higher class groups, and many people believe that this gap is widening. For Read MoreWhy Education Is Not An Equal Opportunity For Everyone1259 Words   |  6 PagesEducation is something often seen as equalizer in the face of social injustice. The concept of using school and information to put different people on a level playing field is a noble but misguided attempt at social equality. While education no doubt positively affects the position of people in society while creating an outlet to educate the ignorant, it becomes problematic when education is not an equal opportunity for everyone. In Adrienne Rich’s essay, Taking Women Students Seriously, she speaksRead MoreEducation Is Not An Equal Opportunity For Everyone1473 Words   |  6 PagesEducation is something often seen as an equalizer in the face of social injustice. The concept of using school and information to put different people on a level playing field is a noble but misguided attempt at social equality. Education undoubtedly affects the position of people in society positively, while creating an outlet to educate the ignorant, it becomes problematic when education is not an equal opportunity for everyone. In Adrienne Rich’s essay, â€Å"Taking Women Students Seriously†, sheRead MoreEconomic Inequality And Political Inequality1647 Words   |  7 PagesEconomic inequality, also known as income inequality, is the interval between the rich and the poor. Economic inequality refers to how the total wealth in the United States is distributed among people in a social class. It is needed and it is important but due to the major gap difference, it affects the Democratic Party and in addition, it also affects Americans because they do not understand the actual wealth distribution. It is a major issue in the United States because it affects other economicRead MoreImpact Of Social Class On Education1457 Words   |  6 PagesThe impact of social class differences on education choices in higher education The challenges that students from a working class background face in higher education. This research will be designed to identify the inequalities that still exist in higher education and the barriers that broaden and reinforce social class divide. It will examine the origins of the barriers and also investigate what could be done to minimise these in order to promote social equality. Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Qu saber de controles migratorios en interior USA

Pocos programas son mà ¡s controversiales que el de los controles migratorios que realiza la Patrulla Fronteriza (CBP, por sus siglas en inglà ©s) en el interior de los Estados Unidos. Su finalidad es determinar el estatus migratorio de las personas que son paradas e interrogadas. Pero aunque ese es su fin principal, tambià ©n llevan a cabo labores de bà ºsqueda de drogas. De hecho, en los controles de carretera es frecuente encontrar perros entrenados para esa funcià ³n (lo que causa problemas en Nuevo Mà ©xico para las personas que utilizan marihuana con fines mà ©dicos). Dnde pueden encontrarse estos controles migratorios y fronterizos de la CBP en el interior En cualquier punto dentro de 100 millas (160 km) a contar desde la frontera, tanto la de Mà ©xico como la norteà ±a con Canadà ¡. En el caso de los estados de California, Arizona, Nuevo Mà ©xico y Texas, donde son mà ¡s frecuentes, suelen estar a una distancia mà ¡xima de 75 millas (121 km) a contar desde la là ­nea fronteriza que separa Estados Unidos de Mà ©xico. Qu tipo de controles hay en el interior del pas Por carretera Fijos, que pueden operar casi las 24 horas del dà ­a. Se encuentran ubicados principalmente en carreteras interestatales y autopistas principales (highways). Mà ³viles, tambià ©n llamados tà ¡cticos, que van cambiando de ubicacià ³n. Autobuses, trenes, estaciones de transporte La CBP puede efectuar controles tambià ©n siempre y cuando tenga lugar a menos de 100 millas de la frontera. En la actualidad este tipo de control està ¡ casi limitado a los estados del suroeste (frontera con Mà ©xico). Es decir, busca en las estaciones de tren y autobà ºs y tambià ©n se puede subir a bordo. Antes de 2011 tambià ©n era frecuente en los estados del Norte, como Washington, Michigan, Maine o Nueva York, pero en la actualidad està ¡ limitados a casos muy concretos. Qu pregunta la CBP Realizan preguntas tipo:  ¿es usted ciudadano americano? ¿hacia dà ³nde va? ¿quà © està ¡ haciendo? ¿este auto es suyo? Respuestas que se le dan Un buen nà ºmero de ciudadanos americanos se niegan a contestar ya que consideran que es un ataque a su libertad e incluso a la Cuarta Enmienda de la Constitucià ³n. Pero conviene resaltar los siguientes puntos: La Patrulla Fronteriza puede parar y, en su caso, detener Ninguna persona està ¡ obligada a hablar sobre su estatus migratorio (7 derechos del inmigrante indocumentado si es arrestado o detenido).Lo cierto es que, por ley, los residentes permanentes legales està ¡n obligados a llevar consigo la tarjeta de residencia (green card).Los extranjeros que està ¡n legalmente en el paà ­s deberà ­a llevar consigo un documento que lo pruebe, como el I-20 (estudiantes), pasaporte con visa reglamentaria, etc.Los que està ©n ajustando su estatus, pueden llevar una prueba de ellos. Qu sucede si un indocumentado es agarrado en un control migratorio en el interior Puede ser expulsado inmediatamente de los Estados Unidos o iniciarse u proceso de deportacià ³n. Otras formas de viajar domsticamente dentro del pas Estos son los documentos que se admiten para poder embarcar en un avià ³n para un vuelo dentro de los Estados Unidos o de salida a otro paà ­s. A tener en cuenta La CBP cuenta en la actualidad con aproximadamente 20,000 agentes en todo el paà ­s. Este programa de control fronterizo interno es muy criticado por amplios sectores de la sociedad, desde ciudadanos que sufren retrasos por estar sujetos a ellos, a defensores de las libertades civiles o de los derechos de los inmigrantes. La presidencia de Donald Trump està ¡ ocasionando  un gran impacto en asuntos migratorios, por lo que es conveniente estar informado y evitar ser và ­ctima de fraudes por parte de personas sin escrà ºpulos que se aprovechan del miedo y prometen cosas que, simplemente, no son posibles. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Hrm 595 Week 5 Case Study 1 Capital Mortgage - 770 Words

HRM 595 WEEK 5 CASE STUDY 1 CAPITAL MORTGAGE To purchase this visit following link: http://www.activitymode.com/product/hrm-595-week-5-case-study-1-capital-mortgage/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM HRM 595 WEEK 5 CASE STUDY 1 CAPITAL MORTGAGE HRM 595 Week 5 Case Study 1: Capital Mortgage Insurance Corporation Assignment HRM 595 Week 5 Case Study 1: Capital Mortgage Insurance Corporation Assignment Activity mode aims to provide quality study notes and tutorials to the students of HRM 595 Week 5 Case Study 1 Capital Mortgage in order to ace their studies. HRM 595 WEEK 5 CASE STUDY 1 CAPITAL MORTGAGE To purchase this visit following link: http://www.activitymode.com/product/hrm-595-week-5-case-study-1-capital-mortgage/†¦show more content†¦HRM 595 WEEK 5 CASE STUDY 1 CAPITAL MORTGAGE To purchase this visit following link: http://www.activitymode.com/product/hrm-595-week-5-case-study-1-capital-mortgage/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM HRM 595 WEEK 5 CASE STUDY 1 CAPITAL MORTGAGE HRM 595 Week 5 Case Study 1: Capital Mortgage Insurance Corporation Assignment HRM 595 Week 5 Case Study 1: Capital Mortgage Insurance Corporation Assignment Activity mode aims to provide quality study notes and tutorials to the students of HRM 595 Week 5 Case Study 1 Capital Mortgage in order to ace their studies. HRM 595 WEEK 5 CASE STUDY 1 CAPITAL MORTGAGE To purchase this visit following link: http://www.activitymode.com/product/hrm-595-week-5-case-study-1-capital-mortgage/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM HRM 595 WEEK 5 CASE STUDY 1 CAPITAL MORTGAGE HRM 595 Week 5 Case Study 1: Capital Mortgage Insurance Corporation Assignment HRM 595 Week 5 Case Study 1: Capital Mortgage Insurance Corporation Assignment Activity mode aims to provide quality study notes and tutorials to the students of HRM 595 Week 5 Case Study 1 Capital Mortgage in order to ace their studies. HRM 595Show MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesRobbins, Timothy A. Judge. — 15th ed. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-283487-2 ISBN-10: 0-13-283487-1 1. Organizational behavior. I. Judge, Tim. II. Title. HD58.7.R62 2012 658.3—dc23 2011038674 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2 Brief Contents Preface xxii 1 2 Introduction 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 3 The Individual 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Diversity in Organizations 39 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 69 Emotions and Moods 97 PersonalityRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pages mymanagementlab is an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

Character Analysis of Julius Caesar - 1421 Words

Julius Caesar Character Analysis Cassius Strengths and Weaknesses Cassius was one of the conspirators against Cesar and proves to be a powerful character in Shakespeares, Julius Caesar. He has much strength and very few weaknesses and this helped him achieve small goals that led to his main goal of killing Caesar. One of Cassius strengths is his ability to influence people using flattery and pressure. In Act 1, Scene 2, Cassius demonstrates this strength by influencing Brutus to think more seriously about stopping Caesar from becoming king by reasoning with him and pressuring him. In this scene, Cassius says, ...upon what meat doth this our Caesar feed, that he has grown so great...there was a Brutus once that would have brookd†¦show more content†¦The poor man almost drowned had it not been for me who pulled him out! And now it seems that this same weakling is fit for a king. Now, Caesar has everything one could ask for-popularity, wealth and power-and after I have shown myself to be the better man! How does he deserve more than me when I can do so much more! Relationship with Brutus I cant see myself having a true friendship with Brutus, but I had to at least pretend to be his friend to kill Caesar. The two of us could have made great friends and a good team if the man dropped his morals and principles for a second! However, Brutus continued to live by his principles and our relationship could stretch no further than a friendship that I used to achieve my goals. I had to use Brutus popularity to gain support from Roman citizens for the conspiracy. Hes morals often did annoy me. I remember when he accused me of having an itchy palm and confronted me because I took some bribes. We needed to raise some quick funds if we were to have had any chance against Octavius and Antonys army. Even for a fake friendship, terms with Brutus have often stretched my patience and it would be true to say that we have a strained relationship. Translation of Characters Main Speech Cassius Major Speech-Act 1, Scene 2 Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world Like a Colossus, and we petty men Walk under his huge legs, and peep about To find ourselves dishonourable graves. Men at some time are masters of theirShow MoreRelatedJulius Caesar Character Analysis Essay1017 Words   |  5 Pages The author of Julius Caesar is William Shakespeare, an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language. He was born on July 13 in 1564 and died in 1616. It was written to be a tragedy and was one of the seventh plays written off true events that happened in Roman time. Also includes Coriolanus, Antony, and Cleopatra. Drama of the play focuses on Brutus’ struggle between the conflicting demands of honor, patriotism, and friendship. Opens with â€Å"twoRead MoreJulius Caesar Character Analysis1332 Words   |  6 PagesBrutus’s Wife Of all female characters in Shakespeare, few possess the vigor and assertion that Portia demonstrates in Shakespeare’s classic political tragedy, Julius Caesar. Overshadowed by all of the chaos and unrest in the life of our protagonist, Brutus, a complex emotional and ethical journey is taking place, represented by Portia, Brutus’s wife. Portia exists in the text to shed light and understanding on an arch that isn’t always as apparent to the audience. In production of the play, directorsRead MoreJulius Caesar Character Analysis899 Words   |  4 PagesApparently, the North Star is also a pincushion. William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar, is about the assassination of the titular future king and the aftermath of this event. Julius Caesar was loved by all the common people but hated by the aristocracy. Many characters in this play end up dying due to this event. Many of them had thought themselves immortal. As a genius playwright, Shakespeare was able t o include hidden messages in his plays. In this specific play, he was able to demonstrateRead MoreJulius Caesar Character Analysis852 Words   |  4 Pagesdislike people. In this play, Julius Caesar, there were many different characters with many different personalities. I believe that Soothsayer is the most honorable character, and I believe that Brutus is the most corrupt. I believe that Soothsayer is the most honorable character for multiple reasons. One reason I believe this is because he tried to warn Caesar two times about the Ides of March. Caesar marked him as unimportant, and he ignored Soothsayer. Despite Caesar saying he was unimportant, heRead MoreJulius Caesar Character Analysis1546 Words   |  7 Pagesmight, or will, start taking advantage of them. In one of Shakespeare’s plays, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, it demonstrates that being too trusting of someone could end with bad consequences. In The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, one of the main characters, Brutus, trusted his best friend, Cassius, with everything. Brutus trusted that Cassius was right about him being a new ruler of Rome, how killing Caesar would make a safer and better living space for the community, and that the people would supportRead MoreJulius Caesar Character Analysis785 Words   |  4 Pageslanguage† (Keach 253). In the play Julius Caesar, William Shakespea re uses metals to add emphasis to the play. These references to metal are used in the play as a form of characterization, as a way to establish the mood, and as a way to explain the ideas of the characters. The characterization helps the audience to have a better understanding of the characters and their personalities, the mood further explains what the characters are feeling in relation to Caesar and his death, and they emphasizeRead MoreJulius Caesar Character Analysis842 Words   |  4 PagesWhen it comes down to identifying true friends, not everyone will show loyalty in the same way. In the play Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare, Brutus and Antony have flaws and varying beliefs which led them down different paths, as well as individual ways of displaying this ardent behavior. Everyone has different faults or quirks that can get in the way and cause us to do some pretty hurtful things. But Shakespeare shows us that although these flaws produce bad outcomes, they might have more positiveRead MoreJulius Caesar Character Analysis2014 Words   |  9 PagesJulius Caesar is a play about the death of Julius Caesar and how his death affects the Roman Empire. The play was written in 1599 by William Shakespeare. Even though the play is about Julius Caesar, the main character isn’t Julius Caesar, but really is Brutus. Brutus deals with internal conflict during the play because at first he doesn’t want to cause any harm to his emperor but Cassius convinces him that the other senators and he should do something about Caesar. Cassius is another senator forRead MoreJulius Caesar Character Analysis Essay834 Words   |  4 Pageswas once a friend that ended up costing someone’s life. In the play Julius Caesar the entire situation gets out of hand, Caesar had still thought his true friend, Cassius, was loyal to him. Cassius is to be known of betraying, his once good friend, Caesar. Even someone as loyal as one may think, everyone’s potenti al can be unexpected and hazardous. The situation gets even more out of control as Cassius decided to deceive Caesar, only then to hurt him in the end. Cassius appears to be a threat, althoughRead More Brutus Character Analysis in Shakespeares Tragedy of Julius Caesar964 Words   |  4 PagesCharacter Analysis: Brutus William Shakespeares play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, was mainly based on the assassination of Julius Caesar. The character who was the mastermind behind the assassination was, ironically, Marcus Brutus, a senator and close friend to Julius Caesar. But what would cause a person to kill a close friend? After I examined Brutus relationship towards Caesar, his involvement in the conspiracy and his importance to the plot it all became clear. Brutus had one particular

Kubla Khan (5570 words) Essay Example For Students

Kubla Khan (5570 words) Essay Kubla KhanKubla KhanIf a man could pass thro Paradise in a Dream, ; have a flower presented to him as a pledge that his Soul had really been there, ; found that flower in his hand when he awoke Aye! and what then? (CN, iii 4287)Kubla Khan is a fascinating and exasperating poem written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge (. Almost everyone who has read it, has been charmed by its magic. It must surely be true that no poem of comparable length in English or any other language has been the subject of so much critical commentary. Its fifty-four lines have spawned thousands of pages of discussion and analysis. Kubla Khan is the sole or a major subject in five book-length studies; close to 150 articles and book-chapters (doubtless I have missed some others) have been devoted exclusively to it; and brief notes and incidental comments on it are without number. Despite this deluge, however, there is no critical unanimity and very little agreement on a number of important issues connected with the poe m: its date of composition, its meaning, its sources in Coleridges reading and observation of nature, its structural integrity (i.e. fragment versus complete poem), and its relationship to the Preface by which Coleridge introduced it on its first publication in 1816. Coleridges philosophical explorations appear in his greatest poems. Kubla Khan, with its exotic imagery and symbols, rich vocabulary and rhythms, written, by Coleridges account, under the influence of laudanum, was often considered a brilliant work, but without any defined theme. However, despite its complexity the poem can be read as a well-constructed exposition on human genius and art. The theme of life and nature again appears in The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, where the effect on nature of a crime against the power of life is presented in the form of a ballad. Christabel, an unfinished gothic ballad, evokes a sinister atmosphere, hinting at evil and the grotesque. In his poems Coleridges detailed perception of nature links scene and mood, and leads to a contemplation of moral and universal concerns. In his theory of poetry Coleridge stressed the aesthetic quality as the primary consideration. The metrical theory on which Christabel is constructed helped to break the fetters of 18th-century correctness and monotony and soon found disciples, among others Walter Scott and Lord Byron. Opium and the Dream of Kubla KhanColeridges use of opium has long been a topic of fascination, and the grouping of Coleridge, opium and Kubla Khan formed an inevitable triad long before Elisabeth Schneider combined them in the title of her book. It is tempting on a subject of such intrinsic interest to say more than is necessary for the purpose in hand. Since the medicinal use of opium was so common and wide-spread, it is not surprising to learn that its use involved neither legal penalties nor public stigma. All of the Romantic poets (except Wordsworth) are known to have used it, as did many other prominent contemporaries. Supplies were readily available: in 1830, for instance, Britain imported 22,000 pounds of raw opium. Many Englishmen, like the eminently respectable poet-parson George Crabbe, who took opium in regular but moderate quantity for nearly forty years, were addicts in ignorance, and led stable and productive lives despite their habit. By and large, opium was taken for granted; and it was only the terrible experiences of such articulate addicts as Coleridge and Dequincy that eventually began to bring the horrors of the drug to public attention. Coleridges case is a particularly sad and instructive one. He had used opium as early as 1791 (see CL, i 18) and continued to use it occasionally, on medical advice, to alleviat e pain from a series of physical and nervous ailments. But the opium cure proved ultimately to be more devastating in its effects than the troubles it was intended to treat, for such large quantities taken over so many months seduced him unwittingly into slavery to the drug. And his life between 1801 and 1806 (when he returned from Malta) is a somber illustration of a growing and, finally, a hopeless bondage to opium. By the time he realized he was addicted, however, it was too late. He consulted a variety of physicians; he attempted more than once (with nearly fatal results) to break off his use of opium all at once; and, at last, in 1816, when he submitted his case to James Gillman (in whose house he was to spend the rest of his life), he was able to control his habit and reduce his doses, although he was never able to emancipate himself entirely. But to return to the 1790s: what can we say about Coleridges experience of opium at the time of composing Kubla Khan? The effects produced by opium in the early stages were soothing and seductive: Laudanum, he wrote his brother George in March 1798 (in terms which recall the imagery of Kubla Khan), gave me repose, not sleep: but YOU, I believe, know how divine that repose is what a spot of enchantment, a green spot of fountains, flowers trees, in the very heart of a waste of Sands! (CL, i 394). Opium, it seems (to cite an earlier letter, of October 1797, which may well be describing a drug experience), tended to raise spiritualize his intellect, so that he could, like the Indian Vishnu, float about along an infinite ocean cradled in the flower of the Lotos (CL, i 350). Such an experience and such a mood are reflected in Kubla Khan. As we know from the Crewe endnote, Coleridge took two grains of Opium before he wrote Kubla Khan; and this fact naturally raises the issue of the drugs effect on the poets creative imagination. Early critics, guided by Coleridges statements in the 1816 Preface, assumed that there was a direct and immediate correlation between opium and imagination. In 1897 J.M. Robertson could not bring himself to doubt that the special quality of this felicitous work is to be attributed to its being all conceived and composed under the influence of opium; and in 1934 M.H. Abrams declared that the great gift of opium to men like Coleridge and Dequincy was access to a new world as different from this as Mars may be; and one which ordinary mortals, hindered by terrestrial conceptions, can never, from mere description, quite comprehend. More recent criticism, however, grounded on modern medical studies, controverts such conclusions decisively. According to Elisabeth Schneider, it is widely agreed now t hat persons of unstable psychological makeup are much more likely to become addicted to opiates than are normal ones and that, among such neurotic users of opium, the intensity of the pleasure produced by the drug seems (on the evidence of medical case-studies) to be in direct proportion to the degree of instability. The explanation (she continues) of the supposed creative powers of opium lies in the euphoria that it produces: With some unstable temperaments the euphoria may be intense. Its effect is usually to increase the persons satisfaction with his inner state of well being, to turn his attention inward upon himself while diminishing his attention to external stimuli. Thus it sometimes encourages the mood in which daydreaming occurs. The narcosis of opium has been popularly described as having the effect of heightening and intensifying the acuteness of the senses. This it quite definitely does not do. If anything, the effect is the reverse. Alethea Hayter, although she wishes to avoid the extremes of the positions of Abrams and Schneider, nevertheless comes much closer in her conclusions to the latter than to the former. Opium, she argues, can only work On what is already there in a mans mind and memory, and, if he already has a creative imagination and a tendency to reverie, dreams and hypnologic visions, then opium may intensify and focus his perceptions. Her final verdict which can be no more than a hypothesis is that the action of opium, though it can never be a substitute for innate imagination, can uncover that imagination while it is at work in a way which might enable an exceptionally gifted and self-aware writer to observe and learn from his own mental processes. The most reasonable conclusion to be drawn from these various explorations of the relationship between opium and the operation of the creative imagination is that, while Kubla Khan might well not have been produced without opium, it most assuredly wo uld never have been born except for the powerfully and innately imaginative mind of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Interpretative Approaches to Kubla KhanThere is an observation Never tell thy dreams, and I am almost afraid that Kubla Khan is an owl that wont bear day light, I fear lest it should be discovered by the lantern of typography clear reducting to letters, no better than nonsense or no sense. (Charles Lamb)In a moment of rash optimism a notable scholar once began an essay by declaring that We now know almost everything about Coleridges Kubla Khan except what the poem is about. The truth of the matter, however, is that we know almost nothing conclusive about Kubla Khan, including what it is about. In fact, by far the most intriguing question about this most intriguing of poems is What does it mean? if, indeed, it has or was ever intended to have any particular meaning. For the overwhelming majority of Coleridges contemporaries, Kubla Khan seemed (as Lamb foresaw) to be no better than nonsense, and they dismissed it contemptuously. The poem itself is below criticism, declared the anonymous reviewer in the Monthly Review (Jan 1817); and Thomas Moore, writing in the Edinburgh Review (Sep 1816), tartly asserted that the thing now before us, is utterly destitute of value and he defied any man to point out a passage of poetical merit in it.While derisive asperity of this sort i s the common fare of most of the early reviews, there are, nevertheless, contemporary readers whose response is both sympathetic and positive even though they value the poem for its rich and bewitching suggestiveness rather than for any discernible meaning that it might possess. Charles Lamb, for example, speaks fondly of hearing Coleridge recite Kubla Khan so enchantingly that it irradiates brings heaven Elysian bowers into my parlour while he sings or says it; and Leigh Hunt turns hopefully to analogies in music and painting in an effort to describe the poems haunting but indefinable effect: Kubla Khan is a voice and a vision, an everlasting tune in our mouths, a dream fit for Cambuscan and all his poets, a dance of pictures such as Giotto or Cimabue, revived and re-inspired, would have made for a Storie of Old Tartarie, a piece of the invisible world made visible by a sun at midnight and sliding before our eyes. Throughout the nineteenth century and during the first quarter of the twentieth century Kubla Khan was considered, almost universally, to be a poem in which sound overwhelms sense. With a few exceptions (such as Lamb and Leigh Hunt), Romantic critics accustomed to poetry of statement and antipathetic to any notion of ars gratia artis summarily dismissed Kubla Khan as a meaningless farrago of sonorous phrases beneath the notice of serious criticism. It only demonstrated, according to William Hazlitt, that Mr Coleridge can write better nonsense verses than any man in England and then he added, proleptically, It is not a poem, but a musical composition. For Victorian and Early Modern readers, on the other hand, Kubla Khan was a poem not below but beyond the reach of criticism, and they adopted (without the irony) Hazlitts perception that it must properly be appreciated as verbalised music. When it has been said, wrote Swinburne of Kubla Khan, that such melodies were never heard, such dreams never dreamed, such speech never spoken, the chief thing remains unsaid, and unspeakable. There is a charm upon which can only be felt in silent submission of wonder. Even John Livingston Lowes culpable, if ever anyone has been, of murdering to dissect insisted on the elusive magic of Coleridges dream vision: For Kubla Khan is as near enchantment, I suppose, as we are like to come in this dull world. While one may track or attempt to track individual images to their sources, Kubla Khan as a whole remains utterly inexplicable a dissolving phantasmagoria of highly charged images whose streaming pagent is, in the final analysis, as aimless as it is magnificent. The earth has bubbles as the water has, and this is of them. Callahan Chronicals EssayThis is not to say, of course, that the poem is unrelated to the theory: it is only to insist that Kubla Khan, rather than being a material anticipation of later critical precepts, is a part of the process that leads eventually to the development and articulation of those ideas in a systematic way. And it is not surprising, therefore, that the meaning of the poem should be obscure and ambiguous for Kubla Khan records an early, perhaps largely unconscious, exploration of critical perceptions united only loosely in an inchoate theory of literature. Freudian Analysis A poem such as Kubla Khan so provokingly enigmatic and so deliciously suggestive also provides an irresistibly fertile ground for psychological speculation, especially on the part of Freudian critics. When Coleridge called the poem a psychological curiosity in his 1816 Preface and confessed that Kubla Khan was the record of an actual dream, he unwittingly opened wide the door to analysts anxious to expound the latent psychological implications of his symphony and song. One of the earliest of the Freudian readings was offered in 1924 by Robert Graves, who proposed that Kubla Khan expressed Coleridges subconscious determination to shun the mazy complications of life by retreating to a bower of poetry, solitude and opium a serene refuge beyond the bitter reproaches of Mrs Coleridge (the woman who is wailing for her demon lover) and almost beyond the gloomy prophecies of addiction uttered by the ancestral voices of Lamb and Charles Lloyd. By comparison with recent Fr eudian interpretations, this is pretty tame stuff. Nevertheless, it was enough to alert I.A. Richards almost immediately to the chilling possibilities of such an approach: The reader acquainted with current methods of analysis, he warned, can imagine the results of a thorough going Freudian onslaught. In general, the Freudians treat Kubla Khan as an unconscious revelation of personal fantasies and repressed, usually erotic, urges; but there is little agreement about the precise nature of these subliminal drives. Douglas Angus argues that the poem illustrates a psychoneurotic pattern of narcissism that reflects Coleridges abnormal need for love and sympathy; Eugene Sloane, however, is convinced that Kubla Khan is an elaborate development of a birth dream, expressing an unconscious desire to return to the warmth and security of the womb (the hair in line 50, for example, is floating in amniotic fluid); and Gerald Enscoe finds the core of the poems meaning in the unresolved struggle between two conflicting attitudes toward the subject of erotic feeling, i.e. the attitude . . . that the sexual impulse is to be confined within a controlled system is opposed to the anarchistic belief that the erotic neither should nor can be subjected to such control. Still other readers prefer to follow Robert Graves by concentrating on what the poem implies about Coleridges experience with opium: James Bramwell reads Kubla Khan as a dream-fable representing conscience in the act of casting him out, spiritually and bodily, from the paradise of his opium paradise; and Eli Marcovitz, who sets out to treat as we would a dream in our clinical practice, confidently concludes that Kubla Khan is almost a chart of the psychosexual history of a personality ineluctably embarked on the road to addiction: It depicts the life of the poet his infancy and early childhood, the pleasures and deprivations of the oral period, the stimulation and dread of his oedipal period, the reaction to the death of his father at nine, the fear of incest and genitality with the regression to passive-femininity and orality, and the attempt to cope with his lifes problems by the appeal to the muse and to opium. Who would have supposed, without guidance, that so much repressed meaning was compressed into fifty-four lines?Even this brief sampling illustrates clearly enough the limitations and liabilities of using Freudian keys to unlock the mysteries of Kubla Khan. In the first place, of course, there is no received consensus (as we have just seen) about precisely what the poem reveals about Coleridges subconscious mind. Nor is there agreement about the symbolic significance of the major images: is the stately pleasure-dome to be identified as the female breast (maternal or otherwise), or does it represent, as some think, the mons veneris? Similarly, what are we to make of the violent eructation of the fountain forced with ceaseless turmoil from the deep romantic chasm the ejaculation of semen, or the throes of parturition? And then there is the hapless Abyssinian maid, who has been variously identified as Coleridges muse, as his mother, as Mary Evans (an early flame), as Dorothy Wordsworth, and (since Abyssinian damsels are negroid) as the symbol of Coleridges repressed impulse toward miscegenation. A second and more serious problem with many Freudian readings, as the foregoing examples make clear, is a tendency to ignore basic rules of evidence and to indulge, as a consequence, in strained and unwarranted speculation. In one account, for example, we are asked (without irony) to believe that the last two lines of Kubla Khan point by indirection to fellatio, cunnilingus and deep oral attachment to the mother. Another analyst, James F. Hoyle, interprets Coleridges enforced retirement to the farmhouse near Porlock as the neurotic persons vegetative retreat to para-sympathetic preponderance with overstimulation of gastrointestinal functions, resulting in diarrhea and then, as if this were not enough, goes on to conclude that the costive opium taken to check the attack of dysentery probably helped in converting depression to hypomania and so was instrumental in transformi ng the diarrhea of failure in poetry and life to the logorrhea of Kubla Khan. A third problem with Freudian analysis is that, in general, it is more interested in the poet than in the poem and, in addition, often accords the 1816 Preface a stature at least equal to that of Kubla Khan itself. As with the source-studies examined in the previous section, Freudian readings use the poem largely as a pretext for exploring extrapoetic matters: the roads of psychological criticism customarily lead away from Xanadu into the charted and uncharted realms of the poets biography and subconscious psychosexual history. Jungian interpretationsUnlike the Freudians, who stress the psychological particularity of Kubla Khan, Jungian critics focus on the way in which the poem draws upon and perpetuates traditional images in which the age-long memoried self is repeatedly embodied. Often the results of such an approach are illuminating and useful largely because Jungian criticism, when it resists the reductivist temptation to explain away images with psychological tags, allows for ambiguities and the existence of half-seen truths. As Kathleen Raine points out in an engaging essay, Kubla Khan was written in that exaltation of wonder which invariably accompanies moments of insight into the mystery upon whose surface we live. The earliest (and still probably the best) Jungian interpretation is found in Maud Bodkins Archetypal Patterns in Poetry (1934). Her argument, in essence, is that Kublas pleasant gardens and the forbidding caverns under them correspond in some degree to the traditional ideas of Paradise and Hades: the image of the watered garden and the mountain height show some persistent affinity with the desire and imaginative enjoyment of supreme well-being, or divine bliss, while the cavern depth appears as the objectification of an imaginative fear. In Kubla Khan the heaven-hell pattern, presented as the vision of a poet inspired by the music of a mysterious maiden, evokes in the reader an organic response (through the collective unconscious) to these atavistic emotional archetypes. Subsequent Jungian critics have undertaken (with various degrees of success) to extend Bodkins thesis by developing the implications of the Edenic archetype, by invoking Platos doctrine of anamnesis or recollectio n, and by analysing Kubla Khan as a descriptive illustration of Jungs individuation process. There are, too, less respectably, some extreme Jungian (or pseudo-Jungian) interpretations: for example, Robert Fleissners catachrestic argument for Kubla Khan as an integrationist poem. The summary of criticism in the preceding pages has not, of course, exhausted the diversity of approaches to Kubla Khan. It has also been read as a landscape-poemand as a poetical day-dream; there are provocative interpretations of it as a political statement contrasting the profane power of the state with the sacred power of the poet; and there are theological readings quite important ones, in fact which explore the visionary and apocalyptic theme of fallen mans yearning to recover the lost Paradise. What, then, shall we say of Kubla Khan? that it has too much meaning, or too many meanings, or (perhaps) no meaning at all? Grammatici certant et adhuc sub iudice lis est: critics dispute, and the case is still before the courts (Horace, Ars Poetica, 78). In the circumstances, I will not presume to render a verdict, but merely to offer some advice. Literary criticism has more and more become a science of solutions. When a lurking mystery is discovered, analytical floodlights are trai ned upon it to dispel the shadows and open its dark recesses. But Kubla Khan, as Charles Lamb acutely perceived, is an owl that wont bear daylight. We must learn to take the poem on its own terms and, instead of attempting to salvage it by reducing it to a coherent substratum of symbols, we must reconcile ourselves to the fact that no single interpretation will ever resolve the complexities of so protean a product of the human imagination. Mystery and ambiguity, verisimilitude and teasing suggestiveness, are essential ingredients in Kubla Khan a poem which reflects, though darkly, Coleridges largely subconscious ruminations on poetry, paradise, and the heights and depths of his own unfathomable intellectual and spiritual being. Kubla Khan is one of those ethereal finger-pointings so prized by Keats; it is a poem that has no palpable design upon us, and it provides at least one instance of an occasion on which Coleridge did not let go by a fine isolated verisimilitude caught from th e Penetralium of mystery, from being incapable of remaining content with half knowledgePoetry Essays